The Chain of Survival

CPR Training Guide

As mentioned earlier, once the person stops breathing, the heart stops pumping, the possibility of suffering brain damage in less than four minutes is very high. Thus it is important to perform the lifesaving efforts in the soonest possible time. For this reason, a chain of survival metaphor has been established to give the provider the guidelines in providing care to minimize brain damage and increase the chances of survival.


The chain of survival is composed of four different links. These are link together to signify that the procedure should not be broken. One missing portion of the link will lower down the chances of survival and eventually the victim may not survive. It is important to follow this link as you provide basic life support.

Early Access - this is the first link in the chain of survival metaphor. As soon as an emergency is recognized, immediate access to the emergency medical services should be acquired. In most countries, a 3 digit number is designated for all emergency responders such as the ambulance, firetrucks, police and other rescue units. Check your local community for emergency numbers within your area. Place them on the phone or have a copy of the numbers in your mobile.

(Take note that all cellular phones can contact the emergency numbers designated in all countries for free. The universal number is 112 if in case you have no idea as to the country's emergency number. Should you dial 112, it will direct you to the emergency number in your locality. You can even call this number even without a sim on your mobile phone)

Early CPR - this is the application of lifesaving breaths and external chest compressions to a victim who is not breathing and on cardiac arrest. This should be given as soon as possible to insure that the patient will not suffer brain damage.

Early Defibrillation - this is the immediate application of electric shock to a victims heart if the need arise. Most adult victims suffer ventricular fibrillation (quivering of the heart muscles) and are often reverse if shock is given early. So and so that the United States came up with a program called Public Access to Defibrillators (PAD). This is the production of automated defibrilators and placing it in public places so as to be utilized by a trained person to apply defibrillation immediately. Prior to the invention of this so called defibrillators, the application of dfibrillators are limited only to paramedics, doctors, nurses and other trained healthcare providers.

Early Advance Care - the application of advance cardiac life support procedures and medication to the victim. This can be done in the field by responding paramedics or at the hospital setting by nurses and doctors.

CPR Training guide

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